The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Part III


In 1959, a group of African farmers broke from the Portuguese control and form co-operatives. By 1960, the leaders of this movement were in prison, but the movement carried progressed. On June 16, 1960 more than 500 Africans were killed in a peaceful demonstration now known as the Mueda Massacre. The massacre inspired the Swahili to continue to resist the oppression they lived in. Other African nations were also winning their independence during that time. Tanzania, Rhodesia, and Malawi were also fighting the ruling governments in their land.

In 1961, the government ended forced labor. After Tanzania won their independence in 1962, the newly elected president forms FRELIMO (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) to support Mozambican resistance. On September 25, 1964 the first shots were fired by the Mozambicans against the Portuguese rule.

With the support of Frelimo, farmers were able to take back provinces and weaken the Portuguese control by 1966. In 1969 the Portugal’s secret police, PIDE, assassinated FRELIMO’s president and increased soldiers in Mozambique. NATO sent weapons in support of the colonization of Mozambique and South Africa. NATO considered their colonizers as “friends during the cold war” and the Swahili fight for independence as guerrilla warfare.

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