Archive for changes

Income Gap Replaces Racial Divide in South Africa

Posted in Humanity, NEWS with tags , , , on April 12, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

New Bus Rapid Transit system reveals the divisions caused by past racist policies are still in existence due to lingering income gaps.  While workers value the safety and lowered cost of riding a bus to work, affluent residents dislike buses coming through their neighborhoods. Cab drivers who once profited from the commute also protest in fear of loss of income.

The process of change is painful for some and beneficial to others. More change is to come for the country to reverse the effects of the past. Whereas some consider the changes that are still needed as not related to race, it is related to resolving problems caused by racism.

Texas Board of Education Vote

Posted in NEWS with tags , , on April 1, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Last month the Texas board of education announced plans to update the curriculum for the States’ history and social studies classes. Textbook supplies model all textbooks on the requirements of their second-largest buyer, the state of Texas, thus this change affects the nation’s school curriculum. Parents across the country were voicing their concerns about pending changes.

Votes That Caused an Upset

  • Board members voted against suggested African American and Hispanic recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor to add to World History curriculum.
  • Hip-Hop was voted against as a major cultural movement and Country music was voted to be included.
  • Their decision included comparing the (non-violent) approach of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. with the (violent) approach of the Black Panthers.
  • Members voted for including the philosophy of the Heritage Foundation, the Moral Majority, and the National Rifle Association.
  • A suggestion to include reasons for protecting religious freedom was voted against.
  • Members agreed to replace Thomas Jefferson with John Calvin (some say it is because Jefferson coined the phrase “Separation of church and state”).
  • Revisions to add two free-market economic theorists, Friedrich von Hayek and Milton Friedman were favored.
  • Members agreed to include teaching the importance of personal responsibility for life choices such as; teenage suicide, dating violence, sexuality, drug use, and eating disorders vs. teaching “to blame society for everything.”

This was a win for conservative thinking nationwide. Click on photo to enlarge.

The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Posted in HISTORY, Mother Africa with tags , , , on March 28, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Conclusion

Restoration

Floods, elections, and time have brought the Mozambican culture to a process of restoring and rebuilding. Refugees from the civil war resettled and political stability enabled economic growth from reforms. Inflation was reduced and trade resumed as a profitable part of the economy.

With the stabilizing of the government, changes in laws that affect social and cultural development have also been created and continue to grow. These changes promote an acceptable balance in tradition and development.  One such law is the new Family Law of March 2005. Before this law women’s work loads were overwhelming with no opportunities for improvement without a man. The new Family Law provides; changes in marriage laws, changes in social status, and aid in adjusting. With the new law women are allowed equal rights and status of men.

The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Posted in HISTORY, Mother Africa with tags , , , on March 28, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Part VI

Civil War

Civil war soon followed and lasted from 1977 to 1992. During that time the villages suffer from the quos that resulted from the divided focus. Mozambique becomes a target for more and more violent attacks. Communities become unsafe. Soldiers from both sides begin going through villages raping, killing, and kidnapping. The economy crumbles due to drought, floods, and the inability to trade.

In September 1984 FRELIMO changes the socialist policies to meet the criteria of IMF and the World Bank.  FRELIMO acknowledges the people’s desire for traditions to return. The Mozambicans’ greatest desire was for peace and a chance to enjoy life without forced labor, war, or the void of their traditions.

The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Posted in HISTORY, Mother Africa with tags , , , on March 27, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Part V

Marxist-Leninist

In 1977 FRELIMO grows from socialist into Marxist-Leninist doctrines. Many of these new doctrines conflicted with the traditions of the Swahili culture.

Some of the changes were not readily accepted were:

  • Women’s liberation- ending bridal pricing and  polygamy
  • Church membership-members of FRELIMO were not allow to join a church
  • Traditional healers-many were weeded out

Aid was received from:

  • Soviet Union
  • Eastern Europe
  • Nordic countries

They were considered a threat by:

  • Rhodesia
  • South Africa
  • USA
  • NATO alliances

For those who considered FRELIMO as a threat, gaining the alliance of those who resisted the changes was considered as an opportunity to weaken FRELIMO. The ANC, African National Congress, the South African resistance organization (started by Nelson Mandela and others) and ZANU were allowed to operate within Mozambique’s borders in their perspective bordering region. Rhodesian intelligence created a false-front organization called RENAMO, the National Resistance movement of Mozambique, also known as MNR. RENAMO was an acceptable alternative for those who were not in agreement with FRELIMO’s socialist/communist policies because RENAMO was anti-socialist and anti-FRELIMO.

FRELIMO had taken a strong and strikingly different role in leadership and in governing the still very traditional society and had made many enemies. Several enemies joined with RENAMO including former FRELIMO members who had been thrown out and white colonists that had left Mozambique after the cease-fire. By 1979 RENAMO membership had grown to over 2,000 men.

The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Posted in HISTORY, Mother Africa with tags , , , on March 26, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Part IV

Socialism

In 1974, colonial wars in Mozambique, Angola, and Guinea Bissau weaken the fascist regimes. On September 7, 1974, FRELIMO’s president Samora Machel and the Portuguese minister of foreign affairs agree to a cease-fire and the independence of Mozambique. FRELIMO headed the transitional government and in 1975 and the country’s name changed to the People’s Republic of Mozambique.

To help decide on and facilitate the changes committees are formed throughout the country. Most of the white settlers had left the country at this point. Restarting industry and farming was essential to aid in solving the problems that existed throughout society. Hospitals and schools that were once private were made public.  In order to benefit the all within the community banks and companies were nationalized.

In March of 1976 the borders were closed to Rhodesia which still had colonization though a white minority regime. Support was given to ZANU, Zimbabwean African National Union.

The Portuguese language continued to be spoken by the majority. Bantu languages Yao and Makua are spoken in the north with Swahili being the chosen language along the northern coast. In the south Tsoga is spoken and in the Zambezi Valley Nyanja is spoken. English is occasionally used when dealing with tourists or former British colonies.

The Mozambicans were originally Animism. Animism is the belief that souls exists in all living things such as plants, animals, rivers, and even in natural phenomena such as thunder or lightening. When the Arabians arrived they introduced Islam and when the Portuguese ruled, they introduced Christianity. After the demise of colonialism, religious freedom became a part of the constitution although ill feelings lingered towards Roman Catholicism. It was seen as a tool of the oppression brought by colonialism.

The Changing Culture of Mozambique

Posted in HISTORY, Mother Africa with tags , , , on March 25, 2010 by Mijiza Zeyzey

Part III

Resistance

In 1959, a group of African farmers broke from the Portuguese control and form co-operatives. By 1960, the leaders of this movement were in prison, but the movement carried progressed. On June 16, 1960 more than 500 Africans were killed in a peaceful demonstration now known as the Mueda Massacre. The massacre inspired the Swahili to continue to resist the oppression they lived in. Other African nations were also winning their independence during that time. Tanzania, Rhodesia, and Malawi were also fighting the ruling governments in their land.

In 1961, the government ended forced labor. After Tanzania won their independence in 1962, the newly elected president forms FRELIMO (Front for the Liberation of Mozambique) to support Mozambican resistance. On September 25, 1964 the first shots were fired by the Mozambicans against the Portuguese rule.

With the support of Frelimo, farmers were able to take back provinces and weaken the Portuguese control by 1966. In 1969 the Portugal’s secret police, PIDE, assassinated FRELIMO’s president and increased soldiers in Mozambique. NATO sent weapons in support of the colonization of Mozambique and South Africa. NATO considered their colonizers as “friends during the cold war” and the Swahili fight for independence as guerrilla warfare.